Monitoring Well Standards

Section 10. Surface Construction Features.

Surface construction features of a monitoring well shall serve to prevent physical damage to the well; prevent entrance of surface water, pollutants, and contaminants; and prevent unauthorized access.

  1. Locking Cover. The top of a monitoring well shall be protected by a locking cover or equivalent level of protection to prevent unauthorized access.


  2. Casing Cap. The top of a monitoring well casing shall be fitted with a cap or "sanitary seal" to prevent surface water, pollutants, or contaminants from entering the well bore. Openings or passages for water level measurement, venting, pump power cables, discharge tubing, and other access shall be protected against entry of surface water, pollutants, and contaminants.


  3. Flooding. The top of the well casing shall terminate above ground surface and known levels of flooding, except where site conditions, such as vehicular traffic, will not allow.


  4. Bases. Unless otherwise approved by the enforcing agency, a concrete base or pad shall be constructed around the top of a monitoring well casing at ground surface and contact the annular seal, unless the top of the casing is below ground surface as provided by Subsection E, below. The base shall be at least 4 inches thick and shall slope to drain away from the well casing. The base shall extend at least two feet laterally in all directions from the outside of the well boring, unless otherwise approved by the enforcing agency.

    The base shall be free of cracks, voids, and other significant defects likely to prevent water tightness. Contacts between the base and the annular seal, and the base and the well casing must be water tight and must not cause the failure of the well casing or annular seal.

    Where cement-based annular sealing material is used, the concrete base shall be poured before the annular seal has set, unless otherwise approved by the enforcing agency.


  5. Vaults. At the approval of the enforcing agency, the top of the well casing may be below ground surface because of traffic or other critical considerations. A structurally-sound watertight vault, or equivalent feature, shall be installed to house the top of a monitoring well that is below ground surface. The vault shall extend from the top of the annular seal to at least ground surface. In no case shall the top of the annular seal be more than 4 feet below ground surface.

    The vault shall contact the annular seal in a manner to form a watertight and structurally sound connection. Contacts between the vault and the annular seal, and the vault and the well casing, if any, shall not fail or cause the failure of the well casing or annular seal.

    Where cement-based annular seal materials are used, the vault shall be set into or contact the annular seal material before it sets, unless otherwise approved by the enforcing agency. If bentonite-based sealing material is used for the annular seal, the vault should be set into the bentonite before it is fully hydrated.

    Cement-based sealing material shall be placed between the outer walls of the vault and the excavation into which it is placed to form a proper, structurally sound foundation for the vault, and to seal the space between the vault and excavation. Bentonite-based sealing material may be used between the vault and excavation at the approval of the enforcing agency.

    Sealing material surrounding a vault shall extend from the top of the annular seal to ground surface, unless precluded in areas of freezing. If cement-based sealing material is used for both the annular seal and the space between the excavation and vault, the sealing material shall be placed in a "continuous pour." In other words, cement-based sealing material shall be placed between the vault and excavation and contact the cement-based annular seal before the annular seal has set.

    The vault cover or lid shall be watertight but shall allow the venting of gases, unless otherwise approved by the enforcing agency. The lid shall be fitted with a security device to prevent unauthorized access. The lid shall be strong enough to support vehicular traffic where such traffic might occur.

    The top of the vault shall be set at or above grade so drainage is away from the vault. The top of the well casing contained within the vault shall be covered in accordance with requirements under Subsections A and B, above, so that water, contaminants, or pollutants that may enter the vault will not enter the well casing.


  6. Protection From Vehicles. Protective steel posts, or the equivalent, shall be installed around a monitoring well casing where it is terminated above ground surface in areas of vehicular traffic. The posts shall be easily seen and shall protect the well from vehicular impact.

Additional requirements for surface construction features are in Section 10 of the Water Well Standards.


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