Section 9. Sealing the Upper Annular Space.
The space between the monitoring well casing and the wall of the well boring,
usually referred to as the "annular space," shall be effectively sealed to
prevent it from being a preferential pathway for the movement of poor quality
water, pollutants, and contaminants. Since monitoring wells are often
constructed to obtain water from discrete intervals, a secondary purpose of
the annular seal can be to isolate the well intake section or screen to one
water-bearing unit. The annular seal can also serve to protect the
structural integrity of the well casing and to protect the casing from
chemical attack and corrosion. Because monitoring wells are often located
close to, or within areas affected by pollutants and contaminants, an
effective annular seal is often critical for the protection of groundwater
General discussion of sealing methods and requirements for monitoring wells
is contained in Section 9, Section 13, and Appendix B, of the Water Well
Standards. Special requirements for monitoring wells include the following:
- Minimum Depth of Annular Seal.
- Water quality monitoring wells and monitoring wells constructed in areas
of known or suspected pollution or contamination. The annular space shall be
sealed from the top of the filter pack or monitoring zone to ground surface,
unless otherwise approved by the enforcing agency. The top of the filter
pack or monitoring zone shall not extend into another water-bearing unit
above the single water-bearing unit being monitored unless otherwise approved
by the enforcing agency. The filter pack or monitoring zone shall not extend
into any confining layers that overlie or underlie the unit to be monitored,
unless otherwise approved by the enforcing agency. The annular surface seal
shall be no less than 20 feet in length.
Seal lengths less than 20 feet are permissible only if shallow zones will be
monitored and approval has been obtained from the enforcing agency. If
possible, special protection shall be provided where a reduced-length seal is
used, as described in Section 8 of the Water Well Standards.
- Other Monitoring Wells. The upper annular seal shall extend from ground
surface to a minimum depth of 20 feet. An annular seal less than 20 feet in
length is permissible if provisions in Item 1, above, are followed.
- Sealing Off Strata. Additional annular sealing material shall be placed
below the minimum depth of the upper annular seal, as is needed, to prevent
the movement of poor-quality water, pollutants, and contaminants through the
well to zones of good-quality water. Requirements for sealing off zones are
in Section 13 of the Water Well Standards.
- Shallow Water Level Observation Wells. Water level observation wells
less than 15 feet in total depth that are used to assess root zone drainage
in agricultural areas are exempt from an annular surface seal requirement,
unless otherwise required by the enforcing agency.
- Areas of Freezing. The top of the annular seal may be below ground
surface in areas where freezing is likely. Such areas include those listed
in Section 9 of the Water Well Standards. The top of the annular seal shall
not be more than 4 feet below ground surface. The remainder of the space
above the seal may be made an integral part of a vault, in accordance with
Section 10, Subsection E, below.
- Vaults. At the approval of the enforcing agency, the top of the annular
seal and well casing can be below ground surface where traffic or other
conditions require. In no case shall the top of the annular seal be more
than 4 feet below ground surface.
The top of the annular seal shall contact a suitable, watertight,
structurally-sound subsurface vault, or equivalent feature, that encloses the
top of the well casing in accordance with Section 10, Subsection E
below. The vault shall extend from the top of the annular seal to at least
- Sealing Conditions.
- Temporary Conductor Casing. If "temporary" conductor casing is used
during drilling, it shall be removed during the placement of the casing and
annular seal materials, as described in Section 9 of the Water Wells
Standards. If the temporary conductor casing "cannot" be removed, as defined
in Section 9 of the Water Well Standards, sealing material shall be placed
between the conductor casing and borehole wall, and between the well casing
and conductor casing, in accordance with methods described in Section 9 of
the Water Well Standards. Sealing material shall extend to at least the
depths specified in Subsection A of this section.
- Permanent Conductor Casing. If a permanent conductor casing is to be
installed, the monitoring well borehole diameter shall be at least 4 inches
greater than the outside diameter of the conductor casing. The inner
diameter of the permanent conductor casing shall in turn be at least 4 inches
greater than the outside diameter of the well casing.
Sealing material shall be placed between the permanent conductor casing and
the borehole wall, and the conductor casing and the well casing. The sealing
material shall extend to at least the depths specified in Subsection A of
- Radial Thickness of Seal. A minimum of two inches of sealing material
shall be maintained between all casings and the borehole wall, within the
interval to be sealed, except as noted in Section 9 of the Water Well
Standards. At least two inches of the sealing material shall also be
maintained between all "casings" in a borehole, within the interval to be
sealed unless otherwise approved by the enforcing agency. Additional space
shall be provided, where needed, to allow casings to be properly centralized
and spaced and allow the use of a tremie pipe during well construction (if
required), especially for deeper wells.
- Sealing Material. Sealing material shall consist of neat cement, sand-
cement, or bentonite clay. Cement-based sealing material shall be used
opposite fractured rock, unless otherwise approved by the enforcing agency.
Concrete shall be used only with the approval of the enforcing agency.
Sealing material shall be selected based on required structural, handling,
and sealing properties, and the chemical environment into which it is placed.
Used drilling mud or cuttings from drilling shall not be used for any part of
- Water. Water used for sealing mixtures should generally be of drinking
water quality, shall be compatible with the type of sealing material used,
shall be free of petroleum and petroleum products, and shall be free of
suspended matter. Good-quality water is necessary to ensure that sealing
materials achieve proper consistency for placement and achieve adequate
structural and sealing properties.
Nonpotable water can sometimes be used for preparing cement-based sealing
materials. In no case shall the concentration of chloride in water used in
cement-based sealing material exceed 2,000 milligrams per liter. Sulfate
shall not exceed 1,500 mg/l.
Water used for sealing material shall be chemically analyzed if unknown.
Only drinking-quality water of known composition should be used for preparing
sealing mixtures for monitoring wells to be used for sensitive water-quality
- Cement-Based Sealing Materials. Discussion and standards for cement-
based sealing materials are contained in Section 9 of the Water Well
Standards. Special considerations that apply to monitoring wells are:
- Additives. Care should be exercised in the use of special additives for
cement-based sealing materials, such as those used for modifying cement
setting times. Some additives could interfere with sensitive water quality
- Cooling Water. In the case of water quality monitoring wells, care
should be exercised in the use of circulating cooling water to protect
plastic casing from heat build-up during setting of cement-based sealing
materials. Water introduced and/or circulated in a well for cooling could
interfere with water quality determinations.
- Bentonite-Based Sealing Materials. Discussion and standards for
bentonite-based sealing materials are contained in Section 9 of the Water
- Transition Seal. A bentonite-based transition seal, up to 5 feet in
length, is often placed in the annular space to separate filter pack and
cement-based sealing materials. The transition seal can prevent cement-based
sealing materials from infiltrating the filter pack. A short interval of
fine-grain sand, usually less than 2 feet in length, is often placed between
the filter pack and the bentonite transition seal to prevent bentonite from
entering the filter pack. Also, fine sand is sometimes used in place of
bentonite as the transition seal material.
Fine grain forms of bentonite, such as granules and powder, are usually
employed for a transition seal if a transition seal is to be placed above the
water level in a well boring. Coarse forms of bentonite, such as pellets and
chips, are often used where a bentonite transition seal is to be placed below
the water level.
Transition seals should be installed by using a tremie pipe or equivalent.
However, some forms of bentonite may tend to bridge or clog in a tremie pipe.
Bentonite can be replaced in the well annulus in dry form or as slurry for
transition seals. Water should be added to the bentonite transition seal
prior to the placement of cement-based sealing materials where the bentonite
is dry in the borehole. Care should be exercised during the addition of
water to the borehole to prevent displacing the bentonite.
Water should be added to bentonite at a ratio of about 1 gallon for every 2
pounds of bentonite to allow for proper hydration. Water added to bentonite
for hydration or to make a slurry shall be of suitable quality and free of
pollutants and contaminants.
Sufficient time should be allowed for bentonite transition seals to properly
hydrate before cement-based sealing materials are placed. Normally, ½ to 1
hour is required for hydration to occur. Actual time of hydration is a
function of site conditions.
The top of the transition seal shall be sounded to ensure that no bridging
occurred during placement.
- Placement of Annular Seal Material. All loose cuttings and other
obstructions shall be removed from the annular space before sealing materials
are placed. Sealing may be accomplished by using pressure grouting
techniques, a tremie pipe, or equivalent. Sealing materials shall be
installed as soon as possible during well construction operations. Sealing
materials shall not be installed by "free-fall" from the surface unless the
interval to be sealed is dry and less than 30 feet deep.
Casing spacers shall be used within the interval(s) to be sealed to separate
individual well casing strings from one another in a borehole of a nested
monitoring well. The spacers shall be placed at intervals along the casing
to ensure a minimum separation of 2 inches between individual casing strings.
Spacers shall be constructed of corrosion-resistant metal, plastic, or other
non-degradable material. Wood shall not be used as spacer material.
Any metallic component of a spacer used with metallic casing shall consist of
the same material as the casing. Metallic spacer components shall meet the
same metallurgical specifications and standards as the casing to reduce the
potential for galvanic corrosion of the casing.
The spacing of casing spacers is normally dictated by casing materials used,
the orientation and straightness of the borehole, and the method used to
install the casing. Spacers shall not be more than 12 inches in length and
shall not be placed closer than 10 feet apart along a casing string within
the interval to be sealed, unless otherwise approved by the enforcing agency.
Casing spacers shall be designed to allow the proper passage and distribution
of sealing material around casing(s) within the interval(s) to be sealed.
Additional discussion and standards for placement of the annular seal are
contained in Section 9, Section 13, and Appendix B of the Water Well